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    Molesttron

    We know that the conflicting nature of Preservation and Ruins' Intents within Harmony makes it difficult for Sazed to act in any meaningful way. Does the conflict between the two also protect Sazed, at least somewhat, from being molded to the Shardic Intent?

    Brandon Sanderson

    RAFO.

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    Striker_EZ

    What would the dynamic between Elhokar and Design have been like if Elhokar hadn’t been killed? I feel like Design is perfect for Hoid, but I’m not sure how it would go over with Elhokar.

    Brandon Sanderson

    She would've really liked Elhokar. I think they would have gotten along very well, and she would've been very good for him, and he would've been very good for her. Let's say that Design and Hoid are a different kind of pair, and they exacerbate certain features in the other that may not be the best for either of them. Not in any catastrophic way, but I imagine that she and Elhokar would've become both better people through their bond.

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    asmodeus

    We now know that Glys and Tumi were Enlightened, and that has⁠—to some extent⁠—affected Renarin's Oaths and Surges. Could this Enlightenment have only happened one way? In the sense that is every Enlightened mistspren going to be displaying the same changes, or is there room for exploration here?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Good question and RAFO. I'm glad you're asking that, but I am going to RAFO it.

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    MadnessLemon

    What does Leshwi think of Moash in Rhythm of War? She seemed to encourage his actions and essentially brought him into Odium's forces in Oathbringer, and according to Venli she respects him, but it's hard to imagine she'd be cool with a lot of his behavior throughout Rhythm of War. Particularly his tormenting of Kaladin.

    Brandon Sanderson

    Yes, but she doesn't know about any of that.

    MadnessLemon

    Have her thoughts on him changed as he's become closer to Odium and embraced the identity of Vyre, or does she regret picking him out altogether?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Not—no. Leshwi occupies an interesting space. Being closer to Odium is not a bad thing in her mind, right? She is reluctantly placed between things... she reluctantly has been put in a position she did not want to be in. She would not necessarily have approved of some of Moash's actions, but fighting as well as he did is something she legitimately respects. And the way he's been acting among the singers, nothing about that is a big warning flag to her.

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    bitchasstwink

    Can more than two pure tones reach harmony? And, extending on that, does Harmony the Shard have a pure tone for itself, or is it a mix of Preservation and Ruin?

    Brandon Sanderson

    RAFO! Excellent question, sorry to dodge that one.

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    Mattlink123

    From what I understand, Preservation and Ruin worked together to create Scadrial because neither had the ability to create on their own. If that was the case, why did they feel the need to create a world from scratch in the first place? Was it not possible for Preservation and Ruin to Invest themselves on different pre-existing planets and not bother each other?

    Brandon Sanderson

    They didn't want to. They wanted to create. That is an impluse that some have, and in that case it is something those two both shared is this desire to create something. And so they did!

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    hajas96

    Ishar, when fighting Dalinar, showed similar powers to Hemalurgy (stealing the Nahel Bond). Could an unchained Bondsmith steal other stuff from a person? Strength, Breaths, ability to use Allomancy, etc.

    Brandon Sanderson

    Among those are things that they could steal.

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    kvancleeff21

    What was the fabrial used by Nale to completely revive Szeth at the end of Words of Radiance? That seems like an immensely powerful fabrial, and I don’t think it has been mentioned since.

    Brandon Sanderson

    During the last days of the heights of the Knights Radiant, they were figuring out how to replicate most Radiant abilities with fabrials. This is where... the Oathgates as a guide for that sort of thing. So you're just seeing a fabrial that can replicate what an Edgedancer does, or a Truthwatcher. There were fabrials created that could do this for all ten Surges. Okay, nine of the ten Surges. Bondsmithing is its own weird thing, as usual. So yes, it's a very valuable fabrial to have, and that is why you haven't seen much more of it because it is in the hands of the Skybreakers, and we aren't spending a lot of time with the Skybreakers. But yeah, it is a thing they have. And there are fabrials that can replicate the other eight as well. You've seen several of them in the books already.

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    Niter

    Is Jason an ancestor of Jorgen? In fact, I imagine their appearances similiar.

    Brandon Sanderson

    I will RAFO that one. Good question to be asking. The relationship there is not something that I am planning to dig into in the Skyward main series, but I might eventually, so that's why I'm RAFOing it. So don't expect it in book four I'm afraid. You're not going to get much more Jason stuff in book four. It's more of a thing to tease out for those who are very interested in book three. Book four is moving back to the focus on the... yeah. I'll just leave it there.

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    aaabbb

    Is it possible to create a Soulstamp that would allow contained Investiture to think it was in its parent system? For example, if a seon like Shallan's in Rhythm of War was contained by a Soulstamped box.

    Brandon Sanderson

    This is going to be hard. I'm going to give you a no with the little asterisk of I mean, maybe you could figure something out, but that's going to be pretty hard. You're just trying to figure out a way to stamp a being that is of pure Investiture. Which, good for you to be trying to figure that out, but no, that's not the way to do it.

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    waves_under_stars

    What would happen if a kandra ate the body of Ati or Leras? What would happen if they were turned into Lifeless?

    Brandon Sanderson

    The bodies would be a little bit warped by what's happened to them. The Lifeless thing is more likely to produce an odd effect than the kandra. The kandra is likely not going to have any weird effect, or maybe some small weird effect. So I would say weird effects are plausible, maybe even likely.

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    -stormlightning-

    Could you explain why Rlain, despite the fact that he's never held a form of Odium, could hear and feel the difference between Voidlight and anti-Voidlight while Navani couldn't?

    Navani though, who wasn't a Surgebinder, could hear the difference between Stormlight and anti-Stormlight. I can't think of a reason for this other than different species, but I think that would be a concerning explanation.

    Brandon Sanderson

    Okay, well we will RAFO it.

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    Argent

    Navani's lecture on fabrial science mentions that a tin cage can cause a painrial to numb pain⁠—presumably a pewter one can enhance it. The same epigraph also tells us that more advanced cages, with iron and steel, can change the fabrial's polarity. What does polarity mean in this context? What effects would iron and steel have on that pain-numbing fabrial?

    Brandon Sanderson

    RAFO! We'll get into it Evgeni. Well, I'll say I intend to get into it, whether I actually will have the chance. I was pushing it in that book with the amount of fabrial and scientific sort of stuff, and I want to be careful not to always be pushing that line. Because while some people love it, it gets very fiddly.

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    NeedsToShutUp

    What would happen if Hoid tried to burn the shard that came off Ishar's Honorblade?

    Brandon Sanderson

    If you were able to get a hold of that piece and burn it, it would act like burning... You would be burning a very pure form of a God Metal, and those have some very interesting effects. RAFO.

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    howtofall

    We know that the effects of various magic systems are changed by their interactions with metals (Scadrial’s three obviously, as well as fabrials on Roshar). So my question is: when a piece of metal is Awakened, does the type of metal change the nature of the Awakened object in any meaningful way?

    For example, If Nightblood had been made of iron or tin rather than steel...

    Brandon Sanderson

    It would most likely change what is happening with Nightblood to use different materials, and that includes different types of metal.

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    TopicCharming2157

    Living Shardblades are the physical manifestation of spren. If Moash had used Raboniel's anti-Stormlight charged dagger to stab a spren while in Shardblade form, would it kill the spren? (Like Kaladin forming a Syl shield to guard a stab)

    Brandon Sanderson

    Physical form of a spren is going to be more resilient to this.

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    LewsTherinTelescope

    The fainlife from the Liar sample chapters is one of my favorite elements of the Cosmere so far. Has it spread significantly anywhere besides Yolen so far? I really want to see more of it.

    Brandon Sanderson

    It has spread off of Yolen in signficant ways. 

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    -stormlightning-

    What happens if you mix Stormlight with a different Light's inverse (like anti-Voidlight)? Would they repel each other because one is a natural Light and one is an anti-Light, or would would just behave like two different Lights? Theoretically, would there be a emulsifier for Light and anti-Light combos?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Right, we'll RAFO for now. It's a good question, but it's not the sort of mechanics I want to be canonizing in a livestream.

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    SoarWay

    In Wax & Wayne we see the Sovereign who saved the Southern Scadrians was Kelsier, but in modern day people confused him for the Lord Ruler. Is Kelsier responsible for this misdirection or is it just a natural misunderstanding?

    Brandon Sanderson

    RAFO!

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    Kael_the_Adventurer

    The Lost Metal announcement blurb mentions "offworlders" and factors "from the larger Cosmere"; are there any particular books or series that you would recommend be read or reread before reading The Lost Metal?

    Brandon Sanderson

    If I said what they would be it might be giving too many spoilers.

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    EagleTiger32

    Have we seen anyone (other than Hoid) use a magic system not featured in a published story?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Depends on whether you count... You have seen some effects and some Aether involved things in the books before, so the answer is yes—tentative yes.

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    EagleTiger32

    At one point a seon is described as speaking with an odd rhythm.

    1. Would someone on Roshar recognize that rhythm, and

    2. Could a seon reproduce the tones Navani discovers in Rhythm of War?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Well, they are speaking with an odd rhythm. This is... You are close but not quite there.

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    Mr_Magatar

    When Gavilar died, it took the Stormfather around five years before Dalinar started to get visions. Outside of those two, have there been any other that the Stormfather started to give visions to? If so, care to give a number?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Don't care to give a number, but there are others that were at least investigated.

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    AyushStormblessed

    If a Mistborn or Misting is Returned, do they retain their Allomantic powers? 

    Brandon Sanderson

    RAFO!

    AyushStormblessed

    Theoretically then, can Kelsier come back to Physical Realm as a Returned?

    Brandon Sanderson

    RAFO. Double RAFO!

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    LightPhoenix

    Would an Enlightened spren cause a Listener to adopt a different form than a normal spren? For example, if lifespren lead to Mateform, would an Enlightened lifespren lead to the same Mateform? What about other creatures that are linked to spren and have gemhearts?

    Brandon Sanderson

    That is RAFO. But it would be different. I suppose I can just answer it would be different because the way you phrased that question, I believe I can answer that way. But in what ways would be RAFO.

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    NeedsToShutUp

    We know Roshar lacks plate tectonics, being basically crem on crem. Yet peakspren have features showing heat, indicating vulcanism is present. Are the Horneater Peaks fed by a magma pocket, or is it Lifelight feeding them?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Wait for the Horneater novella and maybe I'll get it in there!

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    Argent

    Mechanically speaking, how does steelsight work? The scientific definition of "metal" gets a little murky in the middle of the periodic table-

    Brandon Sanderson

    It does.

    Argent

    -and we see that powerful enough Allomancers can see more than just metals.

    Brandon Sanderson

    Yep.

    Argent

    Are Connection and perception significantly involved here?

    Brandon Sanderson

    To an extent, but the science of it also is. I feel like the stronger steelsight is getting, the more it is detecting things like electromagnetic bonds and even, you know, the strong and weak force and some of these sorts of things that is just in everything, right? And I do think that in strongest applications, Allomancy is going to be moving beyond metals and moving toward things like fundamental forces. So there you go.

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    halohunter51

    Do you have a term for anyone within the cosmere that can use Investiture? And can you tell us what it is?

    Brandon Sanderson

    I have started dabbling with these sorts of things and I've started just calling them Invested, right? Like this person is Invested, and things like this. And I think that term is going to work, but I'm gonna see how it feels going forward.

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    Cheyenne Sedai

    You told us more than a year ago that you wanted to save the mystery of the Order Dalinar's Plate was from until after ROW. What is it?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Well, the main reason I wanted to do that is I did not want to talk too much about armors. I did not want to talk about where armor came from. And I'm going to say Isaac is working very hard on the concept arts of all of these and canonizing all of them and we know which armor Dalinar's is, but I am not going to tell you right now, because I don't want to tie his hands, because what he's doing is he's finding the consistent types of ways they would look and categorizing all the armors into certain ones as we had done in the past for Shardblades, and we're doing some cool things. It's been really fun lately.

    So, one of the things that was teased at the Dragonsteel Minicon is that we are going to be doing some minis soon, with Brotherwise, who are fantastic. And one of the things we wanted to have done before we could do minis was just have really solid concept art guidelines for characters and worldbuilding elements and things like that. Often, with the books, we'll just give artists a lot of leeway and freedom, and we still like doing that. But at the same time we do need to have more strong sort of "here is what Brandon sees these things looking like." Which is not how I've normally done things, right? Like, I like fan art. I don't like to be too strict and be like "oh, the fan art's wrong for this reason," or things like that. I like artists to be able to do their thing.

    But as we move into doing merchandise, like these and minis and stuff like that, I acknowledge that I can't take that tactic anymore. And so one of the things we're doing is we're making sure we have canon versions of, "Here's what characters look like, here is what the armors look like, here is what these Orders look like, here is what listeners and singers look like," and things like that, so that we can be more aligned on all these things. It's been very fun; Isaac's been putting a ton of work into this and doing a really good job with it. But let's pass on that question until Isaac is able to reveal some of these things to people.

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    Baldur

    Is Jasnah Kholin autistic?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Jasnah, I have not deliberately put on the spectrum in my approach to her, but at the same time... there are some traits she might share. But, you know, it's one of these things when we're dealing with, we're dealing with personalities and ways that people see the world. For instance, let's talk about this: my son Dallin, my middle son, he is not autistic—at least he was not diagnosed autistic, when we took him—severe ADHD, and some other things, however we have put him in a school that specializes in helping people with autism and has been wonderful for him, because some of this the things that he does and the ways that he thinks are helped by the same sorts of systems. So, the fact that I would not personally diagnose Jasnah with autism does not necessarily go as far as you might think.

     

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    TGJackass

    The Truthwatchers and Bondsmiths are depicted separate from the other Orders in that neat little chart. Why is that? I get that the Bondsmiths are special, but why are the Truthwatchers beneath them, in the middle? And is there a reasoning behind how the other Orders are placed, beyond just what surge they share?

    Brandon Sanderson

    So, yes and originally I had a lot more with this chart that was going to be meaningful for the magic system and things like that. And it turns out this was way too complicated to work into the book. You can maybe see some of it in Way of Kings Prime. I can't remember how much of it's in there, but at the end of the day, when I was building it, I'm like, "I am... this is one of those times where I'm doing a little too much, getting too much into the weeds," so to speak. But you can, you will be able to... See, it's tricky because you're gonna be seeing a lot of Renarin version of Truthwatchers and less of other version of Truthwatchers. But let's say that Truthwatchers have some sort of abilities relating to Cognitive and Spiritual Realm set in a similar way to Bondsmiths, and because of that they were often kind of opposed but aligned, and the chart is a human construction trying to explain things—much as the same way that the Allomantic chart is—and because of that, they're responding to things that have happened, that are partially cultural partially, part of the magic and they built the charts, if that makes sense.

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    Bruno Vale Fernandes

    We know Herdazians and Horneaters are singer-human hybrids. My question is: Are all humans, besides the Shin, also hybrids with more diluted blood that gives them epicanthic folds?

    Brandon Sanderson

    No. The... oh, of each other you mean, or...? I thought you were meaning with... I would say that's not the way to look at it. I would say that yes, most people on Roshar probably share some common ancestors in some way, but you can say the same thing of most people from most regions on Earth and things like that. I don't think that's the right way to look at it. They just happen to be a large number of different human ethnicities that share some common features.

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    wanderinglightly

    Rysn, our favorite Dawnshard holder is...

    Brandon Sanderson

    Is she your favorite Dawnshard holder?

    wanderinglightly

    ...is a Caesarian shift +10 of a pesky traveller named Hoid. Meanwhile, Hoid is a Caesarian shift +16 of Rysn. Is this a RAFO or a happy little accident?

    Brandon Sanderson

    This is a happy accident. Happy accident, not planned. That's one of those ones where I'd like to be like, "See how smart I am, I've played a wordplay on you that—" no, I was not.

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    ncmagic97

    Dragons are often depicted as much more intelligent and/or powerful than humans. Are dragons in the Cosmere better equipped to handle the power or psychological influence of becoming the Vessel for a Shard of Adonalsium?

    Brandon Sanderson

    I would say that... RAFO. That's not where I thought you were going to go with that, so I was planning to answer a different question. The one that you asked I will say RAFO to. 

    Adam Horne

    Do you want to tell the chat what question you thought they were going to ask?

    Brandon Sanderson

    They are better suited toward long lifespans, which makes them... But I would not say that a dragon in the Cosmere is born more wise than a human.

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    CovaDax1

    You've hinted before that Hoid is in reality much more self-interested than he is perceived to be and walks a path you yourself said you probably wouldn't condone.

    Yet at times we see him share touching personal moments with multiple characters. Such as during Shallans childhood, or helping Kaladin through several rough patches.

    Are these also to serve his own interests or goals, or are these genuine moments he's shared with them?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Hoid is legitimately empathetic to the individual. This is how he is. He is very empathetic to people's problems. But in the grand scale, he is more self-interested than I think people are seeing and fandom him being. These things aren't mutually exclusive. He can be very empathetic to the problems Shallan is going through while at the same time understanding that if Roshar were destroyed but Odium were contained, then it meets his goals better than if other things were to happen. And in a moment of decision, like if he were said, "Alright, you can sacrifice Roshar⁠—Odium is contained forever," he would probably say yes. Meaning all these people that he's empathizing with would be dead. (And that's what I'm saying right there when I say sacrifice Roshar.) Not that that is what would happen necessarily. I'm not saying that, but y'know, given that kind of impossible false dichotomy, that's one of the places where his mind and heart is. Depending on your axis and things like this, he has, like many of us, a complex morality. But those are legitimate moments of empathy on his part where he is trying to make their lives better. But it doesn't mean that every motivation he has is purely altruistic or purely aligned with what the people on Roshar would want.

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    MoriWillow

    The terms kinetic and static Investiture were introduced in Rhythm of War, but not defined or explained.

    Brandon Sanderson

    Yes.

    MoriWillow

    What are kinetic and static Investiture?

    Brandon Sanderson

    Good question. So I've been talking about this for a while, so some of the arcanists out there know. Kinetic is a thing I'm defining that the Investiture is being actively expressed and used, and so it has certain effects. For instance, you're gonna see sand get charged by kinetic Investiture but not necessarily by static Investiture. Static Investiture being Investiture that is stuck in a sphere. If you just walk by with that sphere, particularly if it's in a bag or something, the white sand's not going to see anything. But if you are actively using it to do something, if you have created or are maintaining something, if you are flying or you are using one of the Surges, then we call that kinetic. And kinetic Investiture is going to show up much more easily to someone who can replicate the abilities of a Seeker, who can hear pulses. These are the things the spren notice when someone is using their powers. This is white sand. There are just many things in the cosmere that respond to Investiture being used in some way, and when it is not being used it is harder to hear, locate, or reference.